Bi-script typefaces designed in styles that are aesthetically very different, and arguably incompatible.
The term ‘bi-script typographic composition’ has been coined to describe the coexistence of two distinct scripts like Latin and Arabic in which letterforms share very different visual forms and characteristics.
During this research, analysis of the contexts revealed the current lack of visual excellence in design quality of juxtaposed Latin and Arabic typefaces. The methodology was based on, first, analysis the characteristics of Arabic scripts, especially the ones that are significant to consider in juxtaposition to Latin Script. Secondly, provide standard terminologies to communicate about this context with a clear language. Furthermore, analyses the contexts in which Arabic and Latin scripts are juxtaposed based on a secondary research, and finally, conducting primary and secondary research to analysis both solo script Arabic typefaces and bi-script typefaces including Arabic and Latin scripts; in order to recognize the reasons for the lack of visual excellence in in design quality of juxtaposed Arabic and Latin scripts.
The result of analysis confirmed that four criteria play important role to achieve visual excellence in design quality of juxtaposed bi-script typographic compositions. First, achieve visual map between the anatomy of Latin and Arabic letterforms that requires a better understanding about the similarities and differences between the anatomy of Arabic and Latin letterforms. Secondly, considering the importance of legibility of letterforms and readability of typefaces, especially within a long text; which requires recognition of the optical disparities in typography system of Arabic and Latin script. Furthermore and most importantly, for using a special typeface, it is vital to consider the cultural background of the readers; and finally to create a new typeface the cultural background of the designer plays a significant role.
Unfortunately, sometimes simplification of Arabic script with the focus on mapping the visual form of Arabic and Latin letterforms, cause ignorance of optical disparities and readability within bi-script typefaces.
The lack of considering these criteria, especially in available bi-script typefaces within most useful devices like MacOS, Mojave, proves the necessity of creating a new agreed system of guidelines for juxtaposition of Latin and Arabic scripts, with special eye to consider the importance of all the four mentioned criteria. It benefits two groups: type designers - on how to create new bi-script typefaces which include Latin and Arabic scripts, and typographers, designers, and typesetters - on how to decide to select compatible solo-script typefaces among the available typefaces, to achieve a high-quality design layout in bi-script typographic composition.